Columbus, Ohio ODAR Office

At the Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) in Columbus, Ohio, 12 different administrative law judges (ALJ) conduct Social Security Disability (SSD) hearings and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) hearings. Currently, in Columbus, the average wait time for a SSI or SSD hearing is 20.0 months. The average case processing time in Columbus is 634 days.The Columbus average for winning a SSI or SSD disibility hearing is 37%. Click on the name of one of the ALJs below to see detailed information about their hearing results. This information for the Columbus ODAR office was last updated on 6/14/2017.

Average statistics
OfficeJudgesAvg. Hearing
Wait Time
Average
Processing Time
Dispositions
Per Day Per ALJ
Cases
Dismissed
Cases
Approved
Cases
Denied
Columbus 12 20.0 months 634 days 1.9 23% 37% 40%
Ohio18.3 months556 days1.919%42%39%
National Average:18.2 months573 days1.921%45%34%
AVERAGE TIME
Hearing Wait Time: 20.00 months
Dispositions Per Day Per ALJ 1.92
Average Processing Time 634 days
Cases Pending 8491
Dispositions 2827
New Cases 2909
Hearings In Person 90%
Video Hearings 10%

LATEST COMMENTS         to leave your own comment, select a judge from the list above and leave a comment on that judge's page

Judge: Jeannine Lesperance
6/23/2017 10:36:25 AM



judge lesperance is very compassionate and patient.she follows the rules but you reall do feel cared about.if you still get denied,it's not because she wanted to..there are protocals to follow.if you're lucky enough to appear before her,thank your lucky stars.


Judge: Jeannine Lesperance
6/20/2017 12:41:12 PM



Easy Judge to work with. Conducted the hearing in a fast, professional, and efficient manner. Asked questions that were on point, but still exhibited compassion. Made the process go quickly and easily without being impatient. Was a relief to appear before.


Judge: Irma J Flottman
6/12/2017 1:01:01 PM



Calm and patient Judge. Seems very kind. Quite thorough in her questions so Attorney is left with little to follow-up on. Process goes smoothly and seamlessly.


Judge: Matthew Winfrey
5/22/2017 12:27:03 PM



What an incredibly kind and thoughtful Judge! It was a pleasure to appear before him. He asked the claimant detailed and pertinent questions. He did not rush anyone. Everyone felt at ease. He is an example for all SS Judges.

Abdi Yousef
Judge: Matthew Winfrey
5/21/2017 9:49:58 PM



Citizens with disabilities are not treated equally and it has to end now. The phrase that no one will be discriminated because of their race, ***, religion, origin, or disability does not hold up as it’s suppose to. As a student that walks around Downtown Columbus, I know and interact with many people with disabilities. As I see these people go about their day, I’ve come to notice that they are often restricted of things that I can enjoy or want. I believe that if we expand the ADA Act we can not only unity our community but better the lives of those with disabilities. ( For more information click the link: (https://docs.google.com/document/d/1xrZ3xJclS3999hqZ-UMytLSBRCfkqVR-ta8n1GZSph0/edit?usp=sharing)

katherine shopshire
Judge: Jeannine Lesperance
5/18/2017 11:01:33 PM



dear your honor lesperance,i do not understand my denial.i cannot find a psychiatrist who deals with disability claims,but social security shrink said i was definately disabled to the point i needed a financial guardian.what is a buffer?thats what the work guy said i could do.i beg you for a reconsideration.i cant find a lawyer to take my case now and i only have 30 days before im forbidden to file again.please.

J
Judge: Noceeba Southern
5/4/2017 3:49:49 AM



Not knowing what to expect, Judge Noceeba Southern was more friendly than I originally anticipated. She was very understanding, caring, compassionate, and showed empathy. I started getting uncomfortable with pain and felt as if my mind started racing during the proceeding. She allowed me to take a small break and leave the room. When I came back, she was compassionate enough to have left and bring me back a bottled water. I was very nervous and have been fighting this for years. Not knowing the outcome of this entire process, Judge Noceeba Southern was fair and honest in her decision and considered all the facts pertaining to my case. She is, in my opinion, an asset to Social Security and to Columbus, Ohio ODAR because she is honest, fair, professional, and considers all facts. She made the entire experience less threatening and less scary and these are the kind of judges our country needs. Thank you Judge Noceeba Southern! J

Donnie
Judge: Irma J Flottman
4/17/2017 6:53:14 PM



I had a court date 1-10-2017 in front of judge Flottman, she was very kind and ask questions concerning my disabilities, I learned her decision is in editing writing as of last week and this week waiting for her to sign then it will be mailed out. Please keep me in your prays for a fully favorable. God Bless


Judge: Timothy Gates
4/14/2017 10:51:24 AM



Most pleasant judge that I have appeared before. He was very friendly and patient. I truly appreciate his courtesy. Made everyone feel at ease. Asked reasonable questions. Did not put anyone on the spot. Did not rush us. Thanks, Judge Gates!

Saundra T Barlow
Judge: Noceeba Southern
1/5/2017 2:25:39 PM



Going in front of a judge is scary and intimadating. Im thankful for Judge Southern. She was thoughtful and very personable. My anxiey was at a minimum due to the tone set in her courtroom. Should you ever happen to read this; Thank you Honorable Judge Southern. Thank you😌

Timothy J. Hoepf
Judge: Paul E Yerian
12/16/2016 11:52:29 AM



Administrative Law Judge, Paul E. Yerin: You, sir, ordered BACK an Overpayment back in December of 2014-15 in the amount of $2,985.00. That money was sent to me by a check when I had already received by mail and activated a new DIRECT EXPRESS CARD. Ms. Farrell and 200 N. High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43215 set me up for another Overpayment and I was barred out of the building and all other branches when I had just got back in good faith to enter and conduct my affairs prior to the Franklin County Jail. The OIG on it's website has in a link ( TOP SSA MANAGEMENT ISSUES). See SSA.gov (Report Fraud,Waste, or Abuse), link- Audits and Investigations. Out of seven topics two stand out. The first being safeguarding Social Security Numbers and the second being Overpayments. Ms. Farrell "disclosed" over the phone of Homeland Security Inspector, Jeremy Gumringer employee phone my SSA diagnosis and stated, "I should have a payee" on the 4th floor of the Appeals and Adjudication's Office after I got out of the Franklin County Jail. This SSA branch of 200 N. High Street in Columbus, Ohio receives daily reports of individuals incarcerated and the day that a person was sentenced with the particular Judge. Ms. Vandivier employed at this branch stated by phone to me that I need to prove to this office I was incarcerated and that I tried to Contact this branch. This Office receives daily and monthly reports generated to them automaticly or mechanicly. I received two (2) monthly checks in the amount of $733.00 for the month of January and Febuary of 2015 while incarcerated and I am entiled to the January check because I was NOT sentenced until January 8, 2015 with seventeen (17) days Jail Time Credit or (JTC). I spoke to a Captain; Beverly Huff; and Kelly with the Franklin County Sheriff's Department and received the slated dates and disposition - which this Office already had aquired. (See ssa.gov The 200 N. High Street SSA branch took $73.40 from June of 2015 to June of 2016, plus the remaining ORDERED BACK amount of $785.00 - which added to $2,199.00 equals the $2,984.00 that sir you ordered back. I am also entiled to the remaining amount of $785.00 - which sir, you Ordered back do to an Overpayment issue from the beginning that I never received. Thank you sir for your attention concerning this matter. Respectfully, Mr. Timothy J. Hoepf


Judge: Noceeba Southern
11/17/2016 7:45:23 AM



A wonderful, kind and compassionate judge and a thoughtful listener.

Timothy J. Hoepf
Judge: Paul E Yerian
11/9/2016 3:53:23 PM



Judge Paul E. Yerin: my name is Timothy J. Hoepf and you sir decided an appeal in December of 2014 concerning an 'overpayment dispute' I had with the 200 N. High Street's SSA branch. You found in favor of me and ordered back the $2,984.00. I was sent only $2,199.00 of that Order and the same office put me back into Overpayment before I even got released out of the Franklin County Jail. I recently found out through a Captain from the Franklin County Sheriff's Office that there office generates an inmate count of everyone incarcerated. This sir would mean that all Social Security Offices' in Columbus, Ohio had prior knowledge of a beneficiaries incarceration date, but may still have put that individual's benefits in Overpayment status while they were in the Franklin County Jail. The women in the SSA office at N. High Street, Columbus, Ohio 43215 DO NOT IDENTIFY recipients of SSI benefits; even managers.

L oglesbee
Judge: Timothy Gates
8/30/2016 9:05:22 AM



Judge gates was very pleasant during my hearig.. When ive been able to see a doctor they always ask if I every considered suicide. I would say no. But since receiving word today that JUDGEe gates denied my claim im at that point. My home is in jeopardy. Im sICK and need to see a doctor but donT have insurance. I had to file bankruptcy and i have very little food. Yes maybe if I end it my family can at least collect from my insurance and maybe be able to keep a roof ever their heads. I Dent T HAVE THE ANSWERS AND THIS WAS MY LAST CHANCE! I guess he had to do what he had to do.


Judge: Jason C Earnhart
6/20/2016 1:43:08 PM



Judge Earnhart is very nice , patient & thorough . Very thankful to get such a great judge


Judge: Timothy G Keller
6/2/2016 9:26:05 AM



I went in front of this judge 4 times. He was demeaning, made me feel like I was a liar, tried to "break" me and get me to say things that were not true. He had no empathy with my health issues and said I "made" the doctor write a letter for my benefit. I came out of there feeling like I was no more then the dirt under his feet. I am ill just having to go in front of him. I understand there are people that try to "scam" the system but when you are ill and have various doctors documenting your illness - why are you forced to deal with a person like this. Is there no one in the City of Columbus that can see what this man is doing to people. We have worked many years and paid into the system - why isn't it working for us when we need it.

Theresa Dawson - Daniels
Judge: John L Shailer
5/2/2016 9:24:37 AM



Hello, I was just wondering if I could get an estimated time and date on a Hearing? I was injured in 2012, and have not worked since June of 2013. I have had 2 surgeries, one On my shoulder and one on my neck, which required a plate being placed to support the area. I am in constant pain and discomfort with this and have recently been having issues with anxiety and depression due to the uncertainty of what my future holds, and the inability to accomplish anything without extreme pain. I have endured numerous treatments for these issues with minimal relief. If you could help me with this in any way I would be eternally grateful. Thank you for your time and consideration. Theresa Dawson-Daniels

Eric
Judge: Edmund E Giorgione
1/22/2016 1:42:42 AM



I attended his court room in November 2015. I don't know what I done to upset this judge, but he never treated me fairly. I had to have another spinal fusion in January 2015 at OSU. This judge purposely used a doctor that had only met me 1 time and for 5-10 minutes in 2013. This judge would not take any evidence from a doctor that I've been seeing for well over 8 years, said this doctor holds no weight on my case. This judge refused to use any of my surgeons, pain management doctors in his decision as well. I would love to go back to work, lord only knows how bad. This judge has either no clue what it's like to have a surgery go wrong, which he used that female doctor for his evidence that never was part of my surgery, treatment, or recovery and she only wanted me to have spinal injections, she was only concerned about my age plus saw me when I was a little bit better off way before my surgery and the state doctors, whom never met me. I did injections many times, but they only help for a few days. I'm pretty much bed ridden now and scared to death I'm going to become homeless. This judge don't want to help me either because my age, or because he knows I'm gay. Beware of this man.

Sherry Williams (for Genesis Williams)
Judge: Henry B Wansker
1/20/2016 7:55:33 AM



I think Judge Henry B Wansker was one of the nicest and compassionate men I have ever met. He was so understanding. He explained my whole case to me. It was for my granddaughter and I want him to know he is fair. Most of all he cared. He didn't agree favorable for me, but he cared. I have taken her to a neuropsychology clinic at children's. She will be tested on Feb. 9,2016 but I will not get the report until three or four weeks later. It will be out of the appeal timeframe. So I will have to appeal just in case they find something wrong mentally because of the seizures. I wanted him to know I thought he made an excellent decision with her case. As I told him that I couldn't explain there was something still different about my granddaughter after her having seizures. Again Thank him for being compassionate and caring.


Judge: Thomas L Wang
12/29/2015 11:25:54 PM



My attorney said the Judge Wang would not scream or yell,hes repectful and laid back so that made me feel better.I was really nervous.He asked me did the doctor asked me questions and then she filled out the form but Deep down I felt I should Of said she asked me questions but My Dr wouldnt write what I tell her cause shes not that Type of Dr but I didnt.He said I dictated what she wrote but thats not true,My notes was wrong it was said I did things that I have not done in years .It made it seem like I was so active.I was so upset.I feel powerless.I feel like I was made to be a liar.I dont even want to appeal it.My letter just malipulated the truth or didnt consider what was wrong or what happen when certain things happen .I was found unfavorable so to make a long story short.Hes nice but his track recored says hes a judge that says noooooo!!!!


Judge: Jason C Earnhart
9/21/2015 10:51:49 AM



He was very nice and seemed througho. No decision yet, but I still liked him

Heidi M
Judge: Henry B Wansker
9/1/2015 7:49:52 PM



I thought Judge Wansker was the nicest man I have ever met...he was not judgemental at all and was really concerned about me and my condition. He showed compassion and concern. I was nervous to go in front of him but he made that experience an enjoyable one. He is a very caring judge and hate to hear that at the end of this year that he will no longer be a judge there.


Judge: Thomas L Wang
6/9/2015 7:10:59 AM



had a hearing with this judge.in march and waited till june to get a decision from him.he was so far off base I could not believe what he wrote . he said I was in one place when in fact I had my hearing over the phone and I was at home .when the hearing was going on things were stated with proof from social securitys own independent doctors . he then wrote that their own doctors were unreliable . and with other fact 1 doctor is treating me for rheumatoid arthritis and has been for over 2 and a half years. he stats that the doctor stats that I don't have rheumatoid arthritis then what have I been taking for the last couple of years ? his decision is so full of contradictions . In 1 paragraph he stats favorable then In another he stats that I don't have or the doctor or therapist is unreliable I don't think he knows what he is doing

Lynne Dill
Judge: Henry B Wansker
5/29/2015 7:00:34 AM



I came across this post as I was looking for an address with the intention of writing to thank Judge Wansker for, almost literally, saving my son's life. At a hearing before the judge I was grateful and impressed at the kindness and compassion he showed my son and me. There was no doubt in my mind whatsoever that this man wanted the best for us. Having him hear our my son's case was life-changing.


Judge: Irma J Flottman
2/6/2015 6:34:24 AM



Doesn't know or care to learn disability law. Couldn't understand why I'm on so many pain meds. Here is an idea for her...google lupus. Lord help you if you are unlucky enough to draw this judge.


Judge: Paul E Yerian
8/4/2014 4:49:47 PM






Judge: Paul E Yerian
8/4/2014 4:48:20 PM



I'm very please that Judge Yerian did a OTR decision for me. I appreciate the hard work that goes into each case file he must go through.


Judge: Ryan Glaze
7/30/2014 1:48:12 PM



Judge Glaze's statistics pretty much say it all. He tows the new agency line of keeping pay rates low regardless of the facts. He has ZERO compassion for the individuals who appear before him and treats them with disdain during their hearings. He appears to have already made up his mind prior to a hearing and then manipulates testimony to support his conclusions.

Vicki Fox
Judge: Timothy G Keller
6/16/2014 10:31:20 AM





allen
Judge: Paul E Yerian
5/30/2014 10:51:20 AM



Why is he so slow ....... Been nearly 2 years and still no answer.


Judge: Paul E Yerian
3/17/2014 8:39:37 AM



It appears he is very slow at his reviews.. He has asked again to speak with me at the hearing office.

D Carey
Judge: John R Allen
2/23/2014 4:28:05 PM



I was given a favorable decision by judge John R Allen and 360 days later it was taken away by another.What Am I to do now? my injuries has gotten worse and i don't know what to do.someone please help


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
2/18/2014 6:22:15 PM



Not only is he insensitive, he is misogynistic. He needs to be impeached if he hasn't already lost his ALJ seat.

Charles Tolhurst
Judge: Nino A Sferrella
1/12/2014 9:17:12 AM



Judge Sferrella did not seem disorganized to me - there are many considerations in a disability case, and the volume of information to be reviewed can be significant. He just takes time to comment and touchs the high points of a case.


Judge: Thomas Piliero
1/6/2014 5:55:32 AM



Lovely experience, fair, impartial, and very professional. He improved my life dramatically, and I believe several others as well. My case is old but I will never forget this Judge!

Gail R Shields
Judge: Timothy G Keller
12/7/2013 10:47:53 AM



Well I got denied again on my appeal but this time it was a little different!. They Social Security Appeals didnt even have enough respect to send me or my lawyer a notice! You only have so long to appeal your appeal! Was they trying to not give me time? I only state this because I think the whole process is a scam.From the time I received my SS card and started working at 16 I was lead to believe it was a special number only for me and my funds that I was mandated by law to pay into for my old age or dissability or etc.....This judge acts like I quit my 600.00 a week job I had in a aluminum smelter in the potlines on purpose. WELL NO I DIDNT QUIT MY BODY QUIT! Wo wants to give up making a living to go on state aid and receive 115.00 measly money a month! 35.00 a week for food! And live everyday in constant pain! Only to diefrom all the pain medication that rots your body out before they get whatever they contributed to the so called SYSTEM! Thats supposed to be for them to begin with! This whole thing has left me a psychological mess and now I suffer from extreme depression Rage and Social Anxiety!on top of it all! My neighbor received his without even going to court and he can mow his grass? My son knows a man who got approved because he is a alcoholic? Well good for him I wish I could run my sweeper or sit on a bench to watch my granddaughter play ball even do dishes. Judges that are so discriminating should be removed from cases the should not be allowed to keep on ruling time after time on same case he is definetly bias and predjudice. How can the state not see he needs to be removed as a dissability judge he takes to much joy in decling hurt people.Ive requested new judge with no avail.This appeal is my last one, I was told case even federal court will be mandated back to him again! Please pray for me. It will not be a good outcome but Im not afraid to tell the truth He might deny again and prob will but Im not afraid to tell Everyone How he treats people in his court! Not even the Governor, President.


Judge: Timothy G Keller
12/2/2013 12:51:50 PM



My case is in black in white that I was evaluated sedetary at best. Done by a independant work force evaluation company in cincinnatti. I was still denied! I cannot work and now medicaid food and cash assistance cut off becausemy appeal was denied by him again. Now it goes to federal court but guess what? It goes in front of him again! Is he not getting the information? I felt so intimidated in front of the court with him and the state dr. I was scared and had to do all the talking my lawyer never opened his mouth! Im 53 worked all my life. Thinking he either hates women or cant read the facts presented to him. eiher way he is going to deny. My question is do thejudges get a kickback if they deny so many a year? Im to the point now I dnt trust anybody!


Judge: Henry B Wansker
11/5/2013 11:48:02 AM



Look at how much this guy's approval rate has dropped in the last 3 years! He was gone from a 71% approval to a 46%. Why such a huge drop? In my experience with this judge, it's because he is more concerned about being promoted by SSA than with offering a fair, unbiased hearing to the claimants. He's also quick to judge representatives who don't take their clients out to dinner at least 4 times before their hearing. Quite hypocritical for someone who was a complete failure as an attorney before becoming an ALJ. At the end of the day, if you can get past his pompous attitude, he's not a bad guy. It's just a shame he is trying so hard to please the Agency instead of fairly adjudicating cases.

hopeful
Judge: Irma J Flottman
8/9/2013 5:54:15 PM



i have a hearing if front of her seems like shes a fair judge from stats anyone had a case with her please let me know what to do scared to death i hope to win have many illness truely cant work

Dean A. Smallwood
Judge: Rita S Eppler
8/6/2013 9:21:37 AM



Judge Eppler is eminently fair and straight forward . If your case has merit she will rule accordingly .


Judge: Henry B Wansker
6/29/2013 9:28:10 AM



This judge is actually really knowledgeable about the law. If your attorney knows the law and his case thoroughly and can present it thoughtfully to this judge, he will be kind fair and understanding. He just does not put up with unprepared attorneys.


Judge: Barbara L Beran
6/12/2013 1:09:14 PM



Judge Beran has been retired for some time now, well before the review from 01/25/13.

Attorney
Judge: Nino A Sferrella
4/9/2013 9:11:33 AM



He seems to be a very disorganized judge, questions are all over place and will disregard any statements or arguments you make he does not like. Usually will indicate his thoughts on case during the hearing. Does not let attorney do more than comment on the case. Generally nice to attorney and client during hearing though.

Attorney
Judge: Nino A Sferrella
4/9/2013 9:10:08 AM



sesd me and ve he asks questions and if you ask a question he does not like he will disregard it gives bench decisions


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
4/3/2013 1:28:11 PM



He has stepped over the line, in writing, putting testimony into the mouth of a witness that said witness was not qualified to and in fact did not make. Now is the time to review his decision in your case for obvious legal error constituting misconduct. If he's done it once, he's done it before. For misconduct that violates legal ethics and/or judicial canons, a grievance can be filed with the Ohio State Bar Association.


Judge: Thomas L Wang
3/18/2013 2:57:05 PM



Really new judge but very very nice he asks most of all the questions will allow the attorney to fill in the gaps pretty short hearings he does use at least in my case VE and ME and did get pretty detailed in his questions to the claimant about negatives of case alcohol smoking and any and all drug use

John Wilder
Judge: Ryan Glaze
3/2/2013 6:44:10 AM



CONGRATULATIONS JUDGE RYAN GLAZE We are very pleased. John Wilder Strongsville, Ohio


Judge: Elia M Larocca
3/1/2013 12:23:59 PM



Fair, thorough, empathetic, friendly.


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
2/15/2013 10:23:17 AM



True Karma would be for Judge McNeil to have to live with only a few of the disabilities of those to whom he denies any assistance. He should be ashamed of himself.

Attorney
Judge: Timothy G Keller
2/14/2013 9:57:30 AM



This Judge is a total ***. He is unprofessional and callous at best. He sets out to intimidate witnesses and attorneys alike and ultimately decides what he wants apart from the record. Should not be on the bench.

VTP
Judge: Irma J Flottman
2/12/2013 12:26:27 PM



Pretty nice judge starts with the questions and allows attorney for follow up but she is so thorough very little questions left to ask


Judge: Barbara L Beran
1/25/2013 8:35:00 PM



Amazingly thorough and fair.


Judge: Richard D Letts
1/16/2013 2:10:16 PM






Judge: Henry B Wansker
1/11/2013 10:18:58 AM



This Judge is a complete tool. He trys to belittle counsel at every turn. He trys to discredit the claimant and thinks you need to have lived with your client in order to represent them. He has gone from a decent granting Judge to another Yes man denying most cases. Attorneys and claimants would be better off with out this clown. I think he forgets he is an ALJ and not a real Judge.


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
12/7/2012 4:53:07 PM



I have to agree with the above reviews. The average rate of Approvals in the entire country is 45%. He only approves 20%...should be investigated, but of course he won't be because he's not giving out the government's money.


Judge: Thomas Piliero
12/5/2012 7:26:58 AM



now retired

anonymous
Judge: Timothy G Keller
11/2/2012 9:08:15 AM



The judge abuses his position of authority. By trying to create a non-existant condition of drug abuse. Thw w While ignoring documented conditions of cancer, COPD, atherosclerosis, cholelithisasis, anxiety and depression. This man has no heart and does not belong in this position! I feel his demeanor was unprofessional and had an adgenda of his w own.

Christina Sloan
Judge: Timothy G Keller
9/21/2012 9:07:03 PM



This man doesn't need to be a Judge. He made my husbands depression and his anxiety even worse. Now I can't even get him to leave the house. When my husband came out of the court room he told me that he is a failure at everything he does. Thanks Judge, you really know how to win a case. Just one more to add to your growing denial percentage.


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
8/16/2012 10:42:29 AM



I feel really bad for anyone who gets stuck dealing with this judge. He will try every little way to deny a case despite medical evidence as clear as a bell right in front of his face. Apparently the medical examiners findings and opinion's mean nothing to this jack***


Judge: Elia M Larocca
6/4/2012 3:35:59 PM



fair,sympathetic and actually very personable.Had jokes too.


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
5/22/2012 6:11:10 AM



he really is a **** joke


Judge: Timothy G Keller
4/25/2012 5:20:21 AM



why is he even on the bench..people who need help ,,needs help


Judge: Christopher B McNeil
4/20/2012 2:10:22 PM



This ALJ's behavior matches his low approval rating. His written decisions are a joke as well. If you are an attorney or representative be prepared to read a decision that spends as much time arguing with you as it does discussing why he denied the claim. He is just another embarrassment for the agency.